ACADEMIC STAFF
+  Fakulti Kejuruteraan Kimia & Sumber Asli (108)
+  Fakulti Kejuruteraan Awam & Sumber Alam (55)
+  Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik & Elektronik (86)
+  Fakulti Sistem Komputer & Kejuruteraan Perisian (79)
+  Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal (96)
+  Fakulti Sains & Teknologi Industri (95)
+  Fakulti Kejuruteraan Pembuatan (55)
+  Fakulti Teknologi Kejuruteraan (60)
+  Fakulti Pengurusan Industri (52)
+  Pusat Bahasa Moden & Sains Kemanusiaan (102)
 

Search by Name Expertise

Home> FKM1000-FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN MEKANIKAL

PROFESOR DR. RIZALMAN BIN MAMAT

Contact No. : 094246275
Gender : MALE
Nationality : MALAYSIA
Current Positon : VK7-A-PROFESOR
E-Mail : rizalman@ump.edu.my
 
ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION
. 2009 : IJAZAH KEDOKTORAN (DOCTORAL DEGREE), BIRMINGHAM UNIVERSITY, BIRMINGHAM, UK
. 2002 : IJAZAH SARJANA (MASTERS DEGREE), UTM
. 2000 : IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA (BACHELOR DEGREE), UTM
. 1994 : SPM, SEKOLAH MENENGAH KAMPONG LAUT, PALEKBANG KELANTAN
 
EXPERTISE
EXPERT AREA MAJOR YEARS OF EXPERTISE LEVEL
- Mechanical ( Thermodynamic / Fluid / Boiler / Power Plant )
5
TINGGI
- DIESEL AND GASOLINE ENGINES
10
SANGAT TINGGI
- FLUID FLOW
10
SANGAT TINGGI
- ENERGY
12
SANGAT TINGGI
 
EMPLOYMENT HISTORY
EMPLOYER POST JOIN DATE RESIGN DATE STATUS
Universiti Malaysia Pahang TUTOR 01/07/2002 30/04/2003 TETAP
Univeristi Teknologi Malaysia Tutor 01/07/2002 30/04/2003 Full Time
   
RESEARCH
NO. TITLE ROLE START DATE END DATE STATUS
1. SOLAR DRYER MACHINE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SME) Member 15-OCT-2017 14-OCT-2018 Sedang Berjalan
2. Elucidation of Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanism by Parametric Approach using Hybrid-nanofluids Member 15-AUG-2017 14-AUG-2019 Sedang Berjalan
3. OPTIMIZATION OF SOLENOID DRIVER AND CONTROLLER FOR GASEOUS FUEL HIGH-PRESSURE DIRECT INJECTOR USING MODEL-BASED APPROACH. Member 15-AUG-2017 14-AUG-2019 Sedang Berjalan
4. Advanced Biodiesel Production from Various Bioresources and Wast Oil Blends Member 28-JUN-2017 27-JUN-2019 Sedang Berjalan
5. Investigation On Thermal Management Of CI Engine Operating With Biofuel Leader 28-JUN-2017 27-JUN-2020 Sedang Berjalan
6. OPTIMIZATION OF SOLENOID DRIVER OF HIGH-PRESSURE DIRECT INJECTOR FOR GASEOUS FUEL Member 20-JUN-2017 19-JUN-2019 Sedang Berjalan
7. DEVELOPMENT OF IGNITION MECHANISM THROUGH TRANSIENT SPECIES ANALYSIS Member 20-JUN-2017 19-JUN-2019 Sedang Berjalan
8. CHARACTERIZATION AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SUSTAINABLE BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM SEAWEED FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION Member 20-JUN-2017 19-JUN-2019 Sedang Berjalan
9. PORTABLE MOTORIZED HONEY EXTRACTOR Member 15-DEC-2016 15-JUN-2017 Tamat
10. Improved Oxygenated Combustion through Alcohol Additive Dilution Approach on a Diesel Engine for Performance and Emission Enhancement Member 05-OCT-2016 04-OCT-2018 Sedang Berjalan
11. STUDY ON COATING FOR BUILDING EXTERIOR, SOLAR PANEL AND AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION Member 01-SEP-2016 31-AUG-2018 Sedang Berjalan
12. Investigation on Electric Motor as an Actuator of Anti Skid Control System to Improve the Safety of Small Electric Vehicle Member 01-AUG-2016 31-JUL-2019 Sedang Berjalan
13. Fundamental Study of Nano-Diesel Blend Fuels in Ultra-low Emission Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Member 01-AUG-2016 31-JUL-2018 Sedang Berjalan
14. INVESTIGATION ON BOILING HEAT TRANSFER AND CRITICAL HEAT FLUX IN NANOFLUID POOL BOILING Member 25-JUN-2016 24-JUN-2018 Sedang Berjalan
15. Solar Water Heating System with Multilayer Absorber Solar Collector using Al2O3 Nanofluids Member 25-JUN-2016 24-JUN-2018 Sedang Berjalan
16. Performance Analysis of Automotive Air Conditioning (AAC) System using Lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) Refrigerant-R1234yf Operating with Nanolubricants Member 25-JUN-2016 24-JUN-2018 Sedang Berjalan
17. Intelligent Energy Management System of Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Member 25-JUN-2016 24-JUN-2018 Sedang Berjalan
18. Performance of Nano Particle Bases Diesel Blends on Combustion Characteristics, Performance and Exhaust Emission Member 25-JUN-2016 24-JUN-2018 Sedang Berjalan
19. Investigation on Performance and Emission of Biodiesel/methanol/water blends Member 25-JUN-2016 24-JUN-2018 Sedang Berjalan
20. Exergy and Energy Investigation of Combustion in a Diesel Engine Through Blended Levels of Biodiesel Member 25-JUN-2016 24-JUN-2018 Sedang Berjalan
21. Enhancing Performance and Emission on a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine Member 15-JUN-2016 14-JUN-2018 Sedang Berjalan
22. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Various Butanol Blends Leader 01-MAY-2016 30-APR-2019 Sedang Berjalan
23. Effect of Fusel Oil-Gasoline Blends of Performance and Emissions in a Spark Ignition Engine Leader 01-MAY-2016 30-APR-2019 Sedang Berjalan
24. Investigation on Differential Braking Torque Controller to Improve the Stability of Small In-wheel Electric Vehicle Member 05-APR-2016 04-APR-2018 Sedang Berjalan
25. Influence of using Emulsified Palm Biodiesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Diesel Engine Member 05-APR-2016 04-APR-2018 Sedang Berjalan
26. Biodiesel-diesel (up to 45%) Fuel Characteristics on Homogeneous Charge compression Ignition Engine Member 15-DEC-2015 14-DEC-2017 Tamat
27. Investigation the effect of Nanolubricant on Energy Saving in Automobile Air-conditioning System Member 01-DEC-2015 30-NOV-2017 Tamat
28. Development of Regenerative Brake Timing Control to Improve the Braking Performance of Small Electric Vehicle Member 01-DEC-2015 30-NOV-2017 Sedang Berjalan
29. Investigation of Micro-explosion phenomenon in the Combustion of Tri-fuel (Diesel, Biodiesel and Bio-ethanol) emulsion in compression ignition engines Member 02-NOV-2015 01-NOV-2018 Sedang Berjalan
30. Diesel Engine performance with Emulsified Water-Diesel Fuel Leader 01-OCT-2015 30-SEP-2017 Tamat
31. Development of In-cylinder Heat Transfer Models in Diesel Engine using Biodiesel Fuel Member 01-OCT-2015 30-SEP-2017 Sedang Berjalan
32. Performance and NOx Emissions of a Diesel Engine with Water Injection Member 25-JUN-2015 24-JUN-2017 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
33. Stability and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Sea Water n Diesel Emulsion (WiDE) for IC Engine Application Member 25-JUN-2015 24-JUN-2017 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
34. An Auto-Ignition Study in Engine using HCCI and Carbon Nanotubes Member 25-JUN-2015 24-JUN-2017 Tamat
35. Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Biodiesel Leader 15-MAR-2015 14-MAR-2017 Tamat
36. heat Transfer Enhancement of nanofluid in a Modified Double Pipe heaet Exchanger with Twisted Tape Inserts Leader 15-MAR-2015 14-MAR-2018 Sedang Berjalan
37. Diesel Engine Cyclic Variations with Emulsified Water-Diesel Fuel Member 25-DEC-2014 24-DEC-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
38. Heat Transfer Enhancement using Refrigeration Nanolubricant for Energy Consumption Reduction in Automobile Air-Conditioning System Member 25-DEC-2014 24-DEC-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
39. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD)-Based Signal Analysis of a Diesel Engine using Biodiesel Member 25-DEC-2014 24-DEC-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
40. Blending of Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel at High Blending Ratio to Operate Diesel Engines using the Chemical Additives Member 25-DEC-2014 24-DEC-2016 Tamat
41. Hybrid Nanoparticles with Ethylene Glycol for Car Radiator Application Member 25-NOV-2014 24-NOV-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
42. Impact Biodiesel Fuel Characteristics on Ultra-Low Emission Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Member 15-NOV-2014 14-NOV-2016 Tamat
43. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Phase Material as Heat Storage from a Concentrating Solar Collector Member 01-NOV-2014 31-OCT-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
44. Fundamental Study of Thermo-Physical Properties and Forced Convection Heat Transfer Rate Bioglycol Based Nanofluids Coolant Member 25-OCT-2014 24-OCT-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
45. Combustion Characteristics of Ammonium Perchlorate & Potassium Nitrate Base Fuel at High Pressure Leader 25-OCT-2014 24-OCT-2016 Tamat
46. Ethylene Glycol Based Nanofluids for Automotive Engines Cooling System Leader 25-OCT-2014 24-OCT-2016 Tamat
47. Experimental Investigation on Convective Heat Transfer for Turbulent Flow of Ethylene Glycol (EG) Based Nanofluid Leader 25-OCT-2014 24-OCT-2016 Tamat
48. Engine Valve Seat wear study on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)by using Nano Powder Member 01-JUL-2014 30-JUN-2017 Tamat
49. Enhanced Driver Seating Comfort In A Small Size Car Through Digital Human Modelling(DHM)And Pressure Mapping Method Member 01-JUL-2014 30-JUN-2017 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
50. Turbocharger Performance Map and Engine Modeling for Turbo Engine Member 05-JUN-2014 04-JUN-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
51. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring of Particulate Matter in Around Waste Facilities Member 15-MAY-2014 14-MAY-2016 Tamat
52. Experimental Study on Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) with Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) on-Board Injection Operating with a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Leader 15-JAN-2014 14-JAN-2016 Tamat
53. Development of Multiaxial Fatigue Modelling for Lightweight Automotive Suspension Components Member 25-DEC-2013 24-DEC-2015 Tamat
54. The Effect of Steam Injection on Power and Emission of Hybrid Air-Diesel Engine Using Steam Injector Member 01-DEC-2013 30-NOV-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
55. Fundamental Study Of Jatropha Biodiesel Oil On Ultra-Low Emission Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Combustion Leader 01-DEC-2013 30-NOV-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
56. The Influent of Driving Behavior Factors To Road Vehicle Safety and Accident Reduction Member 01-DEC-2013 30-NOV-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
57. Concentrating Solar Thermal-Powered Biomass Syngas Modelling Process for Green Electricity Conversion Member 01-DEC-2013 30-NOV-2016 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
58. Development and Characteristics of Waste Cooking Oil as Bio -lubricant and Nano-Lubricant at High Temperature Member 01-DEC-2013 30-NOV-2015 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
59. Characteristiction of Engine Oil with Nano Particle as an Additives Member 25-NOV-2013 24-NOV-2015 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
60. Fundamental Study of EG Based Nanofluids for Application in Automotive cooling System Member 25-NOV-2013 24-NOV-2015 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
61. Development of Ultrasonic Superfine Waste Biomass Particles Pulverisation Equipment for Multiple Energy Conversion Utilisation Member 17-SEP-2013 16-SEP-2015 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
62. Underground Water Treatment System For Domestic and Agriculture Uses Member 15-JUL-2013 14-JUL-2014 Selesai
63. Development of Fuel Testing System on Chassis Dynamometer for Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection Powered Vehicle Member 15-MAY-2013 30-NOV-2015 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
64. Modern Electrostatic Charging for Diesel Particulate Matter by using Electrostatic Cyclone under Positive DC Voltage” Leader 01-APR-2013 31-MAR-2015 Tamat
65. Engine Testing on Biodiesel Blend with Small Portion of Additive for Performance Improvement Leader 01-APR-2013 31-MAR-2016 Tamat
66. Analysis of Tire Dirived Fuel Spray and Combustion Characteristics Inside Optical Accessible Chamber by Using Shclieren Photography Technique Member 15-DEC-2012 14-DEC-2014 Selesai
67. Combustion Characteristics of Ammonium Per chlorate Base Solid Propellant at High Pressure Member 15-NOV-2012 04-NOV-2015 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
68. Combustion Characteristic of High Energetic Fuel Leader 15-JUN-2012 14-MAY-2014 Tamat
69. Development and Efficiency Study of LPG Burner for Traditional Local Foundry Leader 15-JUN-2012 14-MAY-2014 Tamat
70. WIND AND SOLAR RENEWABLE ENERGY Member 01-JUN-2012 31-DEC-2012 Tamat
71. Experimental Investigation Of Tidal Current Energy Extraction Potential In Kuala Pahang Member 01-JUN-2012 30-NOV-2014 Selesai (Tutup Projek)
72. Construct the schlieren optical visualization and modeling on image processing technique for flame development and fuel-air mixture formation Member 01-JUN-2012 30-JUN-2014 Tamat
73. Cylinder Mixture Stratification Method using High Pressure Direct Injection of Compressed Natural Gas for 4 Stroke Engine Leader 01-JUN-2012 30-NOV-2014 Tamat
74. Combustion Characteristic of Emulsified Biodiesel Member 01-MAY-2012 30-APR-2014 Selesai
75. Experimental Investigations on Palm Oil Based Biodiesel and Additive in Diesel Engine Leader 01-OCT-2011 30-SEP-2012 Tamat
76. Design & Development of Automobile Cooling System Using New Coolant Leader 15-AUG-2011 15-AUG-2012 Selesai
77. Utilization of Unconventional Oil in Light Diesel Engine Leader 01-AUG-2011 01-AUG-2012 Tamat
78. Development of New Lubricant Dispersed with Nanoparticles Member 01-AUG-2011 01-NOV-2012 Tamat
79. Electrostatic Charging of Diesel Particulate Matter from Automobile Exhaust Gas Leader 08-JUL-2011 08-JUL-2013 Selesai
80. Analysis of Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Spray Characteristics for Clear Spray Images by Using Nano-Spark Shadowgraph Photography Technique Member 08-JUL-2011 08-DEC-2013 Selesai
81. Sea Water Scrubber System for Reduction of Diesel Particulate Matter Leader 01-JUL-2011 01-JUL-2013 Selesai
82. Development of Optical Accessable High Pressure Fuel Combustion Chamber for Diesel Fuel and Alternative Fuel Combustion Efficiency Experiment Member 15-MAY-2011 15-AUG-2012 Tamat
83. Development of High Energetic Materials from Renewable Energy Resources Leader 15-MAY-2011 15-MAY-2012 Tamat
84. The Development of High Temperature Combustor System for High Performance Furnace Unit Member 01-JAN-2011 31-DEC-2011 Tamat
85. Modelling of Thermal Comfort and Productivity in Automative Industries Member 01-AUG-2010 31-OCT-2012 Selesai
86. Determination of Certain Thermo-physical Properties of Nanofluid Useful in the Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficient Member 15-JUL-2010 14-JUL-2011 Selesai
87. Characteristics of Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels Leader 11-JUL-2010 30-JUN-2012 Tamat
88. Characteristics of Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels Leader 01-JUL-2010 30-JUN-2012 Tamat
89. Performance and Emission Characteristic of a Diesel Engine Operating with Biofuel Leader 15-MAY-2010 14-MAY-2011 Selesai
90. The Development and Efficiency Study of LPG Burner for Traditional Local Foundry Member 15-MAY-2010 13-MAY-2012 Selesai
91. Modelling and Analysis of Modular Wind Turbine System Member 01-MAY-2010 31-MAR-2012 Tamat
92. Assembly Line Balancing for Automotive Manufacturing Application. Member 01-JUL-2004 30-JUN-2005 Selesai
   
PUBLICATION
TYPE PUBLICATION TARIKH PENERBITAN TYPE OF CONTRIBUTION
REFEREED PUBLICATION
JOURNAL Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines–A review 31/05/2017 Part contribution Supervision restructuring reviewing
JOURNAL Latest development on computational approaches for nanofluid flow modeling: Navier–Stokes based multiphase models 01/11/2016 100%/Author
JOURNAL The enhancement of effective thermal conductivity and effective dynamic viscosity of nanofluids – A review * 18/09/2015 80% / data for writing journal
JOURNAL Xx 30/12/2015 100
JOURNAL ALGAE-BIOMASS FOR FUEL, ELECTRICITY AND AGRICULTURE 26/11/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL COMPARISON OF CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND FRICTION FACTOR OF TiO2 NANOFLUID FLOW IN A TUBE WITH TWISTED TAPE INSERTS 12/04/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EFFECT OF OPERATING PARAMETERS ON ETHANOL-WATER VACUUM SEPARATION IN AN ETHANOL DEHYDRATION APPARATUS AND PROCESS MODELING WITH ANN 05/11/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EFFECTS OF AIR INTAKE PRESSURE ON THE ENGINE PERFORMANCE, FUEL ECONOMY AND EXHAUST EMISSION OF A SMALL GASOLINE ENGINE 04/06/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION OF EMULSIFIED BIODIESEL 28/07/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EXHAUST EMISSIONS REDUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH EMULSIFIED PALM OIL METHYL ESTERS 12/08/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION FACTOR OF WATER BASED TiO2 AND SiO2 NANOFLUIDS UNDER TURBULENT FLOW IN A TUBE 22/10/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMANCE OF TITANIUM OXIDE IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL BASED NANOFLUIDS UNDER TRANSITION FLOW 07/08/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL BLENDS ON PALM OIL METHYL ESTER' COLD FLOW PROPERTIES AND FUEL CHARACTERISTICS 08/07/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL NUMERICAL VALIDATION OF EXPERIMENTAL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT WITH SiO2 NANOFLUID FLOWING IN A TUBE WITH TWISTED TAPE INSERTS 01/08/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT OF ALUMINIUM OXIDE NANOFLUID IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL 12/08/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL VISCOSITY OF ALUMINIUM OXIDE (Al2O3) NANOPARTICLE DISPERSED IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL 12/08/2014 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL AN OVERVIEW OF PALM, JATROPHA AND ALGAE AS A POTENTIAL BIODIESEL FEEDSTOCK IN MALAYSIA 17/12/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING WITH A SMALL PROPORTION OF METHANOL AS A FUEL ADDITIVE IN BIODIESEL BLEND 03/07/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL DEVELOPMENT OF STRAND BURNER FOR SOLID PROPELLANT BURNING RATE STUDIES 17/12/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EFFECT OF WATER CONTENT AND TWEEN 80 TO THE STABILITY OF EMULSIFIED BIODIESEL 19/12/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EFFECTS OF AIR INTAKE PRESSURE TO THE FUEL ECONOMY AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS ON A SMALL SI ENGINE 30/11/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EFFECTS OF PILOT INJECTION TIMING AND EGR ON A MODERN V6 COMMON RAIL DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE 17/12/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EMISSION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION JATROPHA-PALM BLENDEDBIODIESEL 30/11/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF TURBULENT FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION FACTOR WITH SiO2 NANOFLUID 20/07/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL EXPERIMENTAL IVESTIGATION ON BIODIESEL-ETHANOL-DIESEL BLENDS OPERATING WTIH A DIESEL ENGINE 18/12/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF INLET SYSTEM CONFIGURATION ON THE AIRFLOW CHARACTERISTICS 17/12/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL NANOFLUID PROPERTIES FOR FORCED CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER : AN OVERVIEW 28/06/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF ADDITIVES ON BIODIESEL PROPERTIES, PERFORMANCE, AND EMISSION FEATURES 25/02/2013 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL FUEL PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODIESEL BLEND FUELS WITH ALCOHOL AS ADDITIVES 24/11/2012 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL INFLUENCE OF FUEL TEMPERATURE ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE OPERATIG WITH BIODIESEL BLEND 30/06/2012 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL INFLUENCE OF PALM METHYL ESTER (PME) AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL IN MULTICYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE 31/12/2012 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL PM EMISSION OF DIESEL ENGINES USING ESTER-ETHANOL-DIESEL BLENDED FUEL 24/11/2012 100% AUTHOR
JOURNAL INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN THERMO-PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ON PRANDTL NUMBER OF WATER BASED NANOFLUIDS 27/05/2010 100% AUTHOR
   

For best view, please use Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer 7.0 or above with resolution 1024 x 768 pixel.

Copyright 2011 Universiti Malaysia Pahang